In finance, risk is the chance that the return achieved on an investment will be different from that expected, and also takes into account the size of the difference. This includes the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. In a view advocated by Damodaran, risk includes not only " downside risk " but also "upside risk" (returns that exceed expectations).  Some regard the standard deviation of the historical returns or average returns of a specific investment as providing some historical measure of risk; see modern portfolio theory. Financial risk may be market-dependent, determined by numerous market factors, or operational, resulting from fraudulent behaviour (. Bernard Madoff ).
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When exporting an earth, the earth continuity must be maintained all the way through the installation from head end to submain, and into the final outbuilding circuits. With a locally (TT) earthed outbuilding this is not the case. Here the earth at the house end will typically be connected to the submain for the purposes of giving it fault protection for the run to the outbuilding, however it would be isolated at the destination. Here the local earth rod connection would be used for the outbuilding. One way to achieve this isolation when terminating at a CU is to use an insulated CU (. plastic), and not fitting or connecting an earthing ring to the cable gland. (note that since the 3rd amendment of BS7671 17th edition introduced a new requirement for CUs to be made from a non combustible material, there is a much smaller range of plastic enclosures still available than at one time).