It is also suggested that there is an interaction between hormone levels and eating at different points in the female menstrual cycle . Research has predicted increased emotional eating during hormonal flux, which is characterized by high progesterone and estradiol levels that occur during the mid- luteal phase . It is hypothesized that these changes occur due to brain changes across the menstrual cycle that are likely a genomic effect of hormones. These effects produce menstrual cycle changes, which result in hormone release leading to behavioral changes, notably binge and emotional eating. These occur especially prominently among women who are genetically vulnerable to binge eating phenotypes. 
If testosterone deficiency occurs during foetal development, then masculinisation of the foetus will fail to occur normally and this may give rise to disorders of sex development. If testosterone deficiency occurs during puberty, a boy’s growth may slow and no growth spurt will be seen. The child may also fail to develop full sexual characteristics (hypogonadism) associated with men undergoing puberty, including development of pubic hair, growth of the penis and testes and deepening of the voice. Around the time of puberty, boys with too little testosterone may also have less than normal strength and endurance, and their arms and legs may continue to grow out of proportion with the rest of their body.