In cases where uric acid levels are significantly elevated (>750 mmol/l) the use of allopurinol (20 mg/kg . q 24 hr) may reduce hepatic uric acid production, while the administration of anabolic steroids may reduce protein catabolism. In cases of pre-renal ARF, rehydration, restoration of circulatory volume and supportive therapy may be all that is necessary. In cases of post renal obstruction, renal stones and ureteral obstructions will often have to be surgically removed before urine flow can be reestablished. In cases of toxin induced nephropathy, identification and removal of the toxin from the environment and gastric lavage may be useful. In cases of suspected aminoglycoside toxicity all drug medication should stop and osmotic diuresis instigated to maintain renal perfusion once normal hydration status has been achieved. Acute hypercalcemia (from acute vitamin D3 overdose but not breeding females) can cause ischemic acute tubular necrosis through the development of nephrocalcinosis, and in such cases prednisolone, calcitonin and diuresis should be considered. Chronic renal damage can also lead to calcium salt deposition in soft tissues including the kidney due to an elevation in the solubility index. Acute renal disease due to infectious agents should be empirically treated with broad spectrum anti microbials until culture and sensitivity results are obtained. It is important to use drugs with a large safety margin as drug metabolism and excretion may be significantly affected.