If low blood pressure is due to blood loss, then preparations increasing volume of blood circulation—plasma-substituting solutions such as colloid and crystalloid solutions (salt solutions)  —will raise the blood pressure without any direct vasopressor activity. Packed red blood cells, plasma or whole blood should not be used solely for volume expansion or to increase oncotic pressure of circulating blood.  Blood products should only be used if reduced oxygen carrying capacity or coagulopathy is present.  Other causes of either absolute (dehydration, loss of plasma via wound/burns) or relative ( third space losses) vascular volume depletion also respond, although blood products are only indicated if significantly anemic .
Photonovelas (or fotonovelas) are like comic books, but they are compiled using photographs and captions. They are a highly visual and creative form of getting a message across to a diverse population. Based on the revolutionary Brazilian educator Paulo Friere’s concepts of participatory education, the process of creating the photonovelas allows learners to define the content and outcome of their own learning by creating a story line about an important topic or theme and then acting it out; using pictures as a means to express a story and message. Essentially, the genre of the photonovela challenges a more traditional educational approach because it has the learner as the main subject in the pedagogical process.